Education in the Philippines:
Cayubit, Michelle Colleen R. Ang, Jerome Arthur M. Arconado, Beverly Mae C. Paz, Neil Howser L. Villasenor University of Santo Tomas Shadow education is the supplemental education given by a private tutor to enhance knowledge, skills and learning.
This study investigated the academic motivations and learning styles of college freshmen with and without exposure to shadow education paid private tutoring in three major subjects during high school. Based on the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, significant differences were noted in two aspects of academic motivation.
Also, it promotes the social dimension of learning via molding personalities and values. Thus, as an adjunct to mainstream education, shadow education has become popular.
It involves tutoring on already covered academic subjects in mainstream conventional education that is provided by profit-seeking private entrepreneurs and individual tutors Bray, The term is metaphorically used for the following reasons: After-school program, private tutorials and review centers are some of its examples.
Aside from increasing the probability that their enrollees will be successful in their examinations, these programs also typically run for profit.
Shadow education takes many forms. Learning materials are individualized to target the unique needs of the student. As a system of instruction, they help each other and learn by teaching. Peer tutors work either with individuals or in small groups.
The latest and most modern approach, computer-assisted tutoring, best serves distance learning wherein the teaching-learning process is conducted in different places as mediated by communication technology such as the use of telephone, e-mail, computer-mediated conferencing and social networking and computer- assisted tools use of interactive games.
In some instances, this is also acts as a supplement to other forms of shadow education. An emerging trend of this form of tutoring is the development of emotion-sensing software that is able to detect frustration and boredom among students via the analysis of their facial expressions and body posture, such as the Auto Tutor from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The Internet is also increasingly used for tutoring which may be done live via telephony programs. In a newly industrialized country, like the Philippines, where stiff competition exists in finding a job, it is an advantage to have a solid educational background.
Shadow education is more popular in societies that highly regard educational excellence. Parents with higher educational levels tend to give higher premium to education. Preferred subjects, such as math, science and English, are thought to have a bearing on socio-economic advancement Coetzee, Shadow education can be a means to extend learning to profit not only students but also society.
It can be a source of human capital in which knowledge, experience and skills are enhanced. It also lessens the workload of teachers in helping students understand the lessons. Moreover, shadow education, due to its flexibility, offers a more individual approach in the transfer of learning which is impossible to achieve in the mainstream system.
Aside from influencing academic achievement, the learning environment fostered by shadow education can positively affect the socio-emotional and physical well-being of students.
Students also perceive classes to be more interesting due to the presence of peer tutors, who are looked up as role models who motivate and encourage learners. This may also encourage prioritizing high grades over knowledge acquisition.
Shadow education involves spending additional financial resources which could have been appropriately allotted to meet other needs. Another complaint is that shadow education can interfere with the core curriculum of the mainstream system by disturbing the intended learning.
Since shadow education is sometimes independent from the mainstream e. Students who learn topics ahead of others can aggravate classroom diversity which may lead to adverse reactions among classmates. This may give rise to a false sense of academic competence among students with shadow education experience, resulting in classroom inattentiveness or distraction.
In the long run, the advanced classes may not be of help in improving performance. Likewise, large- scale evidence for improved individual academic performance is somehow less clear-cut Gayl, This is due to the fact that most, if not all, students voluntarily enter shadow education programs, making it quite difficult to determine whether the differences among them reflect the impact of the program or the quality of students who choose to participate.
Also to be considered are the individual differences among the tutees and the tutors. Research focus on shadow education has been mainly on its quality, relevance and cost and its impact on policy making.
In a study by Bray and Lykins on the private supplementary tutoring in Asia, shadow education has been increasing at an alarming rate in this region but the figures on private supplementary tutoring are diffused. There is still a relative and comparative dearth on the psychological consequences of paid private tutoring.
Academic motivation and learning styles are two factors considered in this research as being influenced by shadow education.Catholics are 23 (%), Born Again Christians are 4 (%), and surprisingly 2 (%) are agnostic.
23 Academic Motivation among College Students The following results show academic motivation among college students in terms of intrinsic, extrinsic, and inhibiting factors utilizing the .
The Relationships of Cognitive Style and Motivation to Biology Achievement for Filipino Students Linda C.
Catholics are 23 (%), Born Again Christians are 4 (%), and surprisingly 2 (%) are agnostic. 23 Academic Motivation among College Students The following results show academic motivation among college students in terms of intrinsic, extrinsic, and inhibiting factors utilizing the . Moreover, “Birth Order and Its Effect on Motivation and Academic Achievement” () by Koren M. Dailey stated that birth order has minimal influence on educational motivation and achievement. However, research by Baer and colleagues () gave a finding akin to that of Gaston’s () which highlighted the advantage of eldest children both in terms of academic motivation and creativity. Academic motivation is discussed in terms of self-efficacy, an individual's judgments of his or her capabilities to perform given actions. After presenting an overview of self-efficacy theory, I contrast self-efficacy with related.
Torres University of North Florida This Master's Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the academic motivation (Sue & Okazaki, ).
Determining. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AS CORRELATES TO ACADEMIC MOTIVATION A mini thesis Presented to the Center for Graduate Studies Adventist University of the Philippines In Partial Fulfillment of the requirement of the subject Research Methodology Biscocho, Frances Aprell Cosejo, Cherianne Love Flores, John Patrick Morales, Amy Karla Jolly Balila, Ph.
Motivation Motivation is the driving force that is applied in an organisation to assist in the achievement of the laid goals (accel-team: ). Motivation in the workplace aims at .
PHILIPPINE JOURNAL Of PSYCHOLOGY, ,42(2), meanings when studying social processes and academic motivation; and, PHILIPPINE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Bernardo(a)examined the applicabilityto Filipino students ofcertain western-basedlearning measures.
Bond and Sabourin () commented. Academic motivation and learning styles are two factors considered in this research as being influenced by shadow education. Shadow education may help shape one’s academic motivation through the kind of learning R AMOS, C AYUBIT, ET AL.