Compare the ancient Olympics to the modern games. Plus, learn how money, politics, and performance-enhancing drugs have become major influences, often causing controversy.
Accusations of impropriety were also alleged in the conduct of several previous bid committees. The IOC responded by expelling six committee members; several others resigned.
In December an IOC commission announced a point reform package covering the selection and conduct of the IOC members, the bid process, the transparency of financial dealings, the size and conduct of the Games, and drug regulation.
The reform package also contained a number of provisions regulating the site-selection process and clarifying the obligations of the IOC, the bid cities, and the national Olympic committees.
Political pressures Because the Olympics take place on an international stage, it is not surprising that they have been plagued by the nationalismmanipulation, and propaganda associated with world politics. Attempts to politicize the Olympics were evident as early as the first modern Games at Athens inwhen the British compelled an Australian athlete to declare himself British.
Other prominent examples of the politicization of the Games include the Nazi propaganda that pervaded the Berlin Games of ; the Soviet-Hungarian friction at the Games in Melbourne, Australia, which followed shortly after the U. Even national politics has affected the Games, most notably in in Mexico City, where, shortly before the Games opened, Mexican troops fired upon Mexican students killing hundreds who were protesting government expenditures on the Olympics while the country had pressing social problems.
Political tension within the United States also boiled to the top at Mexico City when African American athletes either boycotted the Games or staged demonstrations to protest continuing racism at home. In the latter half of the 20th century, the IOC sought to more actively promote peace through sports.
The IOC and relevant Olympic organizing committees worked with political leaders to allow the participation of former Yugoslav republics at the Games in BarcelonaSpainas well as the participation of East Timorese and Palestinian athletes at the Games in SydneyAustralia.
In the IOC revived and modernized the ancient Olympic truce, making it the focal point of its peace initiatives. Commercialization Commercialism has never been wholly absent from the Games, but two large industries have eclipsed all others—namely, television and makers of sports apparel, especially shoes.
The IOC, organizing committees of the Olympic Games OCOGsand to some degree the international sport federations depend heavily on television revenues, and many of the best athletes depend on money from apparel endorsements.
The Los Angeles Games ofhowever, ushered in a new Olympic era. And while American decathlete Bill Toomey lost his Olympic eligibility in for endorsing a nutritional supplementnow athletes openly endorse everything from allergy medicines to blue jeans.
National Olympic committeesinternational federations, and organizing committees Each country that desires to participate in the Olympic Games must have a national Olympic committee accepted by the IOC.
By the early 21st century, there were more than such committees. A national Olympic committee NOC must be composed of at least five national sporting federations, each affiliated with an appropriate international federation. The ostensible purpose of these NOCs is the development and promotion of the Olympic movement.
According to the rules of the NOCs, they must be not-for-profit organizations, must not associate themselves with affairs of a political or commercial nature, and must be completely independent and autonomous as well as in a position to resist all political, religious, or commercial pressure.
For each Olympic sport there must be an international federation IFto which a requisite number of applicable national governing bodies must belong. The IFs promote and regulate their sport on an international level.
Since they have been responsible for determining all questions of Olympic eligibility and competition in their sport. Because such sports as football soccer and basketball attract great numbers of participants and spectators in all parts of the world, their respective IFs possess great power and sometimes exercise it.
Although the IOC retains ultimate authority over all aspects of an Olympiad, the local OCOG has full responsibility for the festival, including finance, facilities, staffing, and accommodations.
Now each organizing committee provides such a village so that competitors and team officials can be housed together and fed at a reasonable price.
Menus for each team are prepared in accord with its own national cuisine. Today, with so many athletes and venues, OCOGs may need to provide more than one village. The villages are located as close as possible to the main stadium and other venues and have separate accommodations for men and women.
Only competitors and officials may live in the village, and the number of team officials is limited. Programs and participation The Olympic Games celebrate an Olympiad, or period of four years. The first Olympiad of modern times was celebrated inand subsequent Olympiads are numbered consecutively, even when no Games take place as was the case in, and Olympic Winter Games have been held separately from the Games of the Olympiad Summer Games since and were initially held in the same year.
The Winter Games were held in and again in and thereafter every four years; the Summer Games maintained their original four-year cycle. The maximum number of entries permitted for individual events is three per country. The number is fixed but can be varied by the IOC in consultation with the international federation concerned.
In most team events only one team per country is allowed. In general, an NOC may enter only a citizen of the country concerned.Introduction to Target (Olympic) Archery Archery has gained a lot of popularity in recent years due to the success of movies like The Hunger Games and shows like Arrow, as .
An olympic champion has won first place, a gold medal, in their sports olympic competition. While the World Champion can change every year, olympic champions .
The world's premier multi-sport and multi-country sporting competition, held every four years. Winter Olympics: the winter sports version of the Olympic Games, held every four years, two years after the Summer Olympics.
Paralympic Games: A major event for athletes with disabilities, now run in conjunction with the Summer Olympic Games, every four years. Athletes compete in cheerleading, flag football, gymnastics, powerlifting and softball at our State Fall Classic.
This event is held annually at ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex in November. Bowling Championship. Athletes compete in individual, doubles, and team play. State competition is held in December in Orlando. The Youth Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every two years, consistent with the current format of the Olympic Games.
A hallmark of the event is a unique culture and education program – Learn & Share – that is designed to equip athletes with the skills they need to succeed in sports and in their daily lives. The Olympic Games, an international sports competition, are held once every four years at a different site, where athletes from different nations compete against each other in a wide variety of sports.