Benedict Joseph Labre, Saint - Frenchman, longed to be a monk but spent the last thirteen years of his life as a pilgrim. He died in Benedict of Nursia, Saint - Long article on the founder of Western monasticism, and on his Rule Benedict, Medal of - A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict Benedict, Rule of Saint - Lengthy article on the text of the Rule and its composition, some analysis, and practical application Benedictine Order - Comprises monks living under the Rule of St. Benedict, and commonly known as 'black monks' Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament - Description of the basics of this popular devotion.
Deorum injuriae diis curae the gods take care of injuries to the gods Emperor Tiberius 42 BC -AD 37cited by Tacitus, Annals of Imperial Rome Before Christianity, Greek and Roman believers had been content to allow their gods to take care of themselves if they were insulted. Early Christians had taken full advantage of this tolerance to revile those gods.
But Christianity was not willing to extend the same sort of tolerance when it took over the reins of imperial power. It was no longer permissible to believe in other gods, and neither was it permissible not to believe in God at all.
No dissent or criticism could be tolerated. All citizens had to come into the Christian fold, whether they wanted to or not. To deny Christianity was to blaspheme it, and blasphemy was a crime against God. The codification of Roman law carried out by the Christian Emperor Justinian in the sixth century was clear.
According to his Corpus Juris Civilis, famine, earthquakes and pestilence were attributable to God's wrath, induced by a failure to punish blasphemers.
This was exactly the opposite of what had been believed years earlier, when Christians had been blamed for the wrath of the gods. The difference was that now the punishment for blasphemy, fixed by the Code of Justinian, was death.
Freethought, the rejection of supernatural religion, along with its assumptions and authorities, developed slowly. Dissenting voices were silenced by the threat of death, so they remained silent through the Middle Ages. The path that led to these voices being permitted to speak once again started during the Renaissance.
It became possible to deny the doctrines of Christianity step by step over several centuries. We have seen that various proto-Protestant groups doubted mainstream Christian teachings from the twelfth century. Their Protestant successors denied various Roman doctrines from the sixteenth.
Anabaptists and Adventists denied even more.
In this section we will trace the path by which it became permissible to express even greater degrees of religious doubt, and by which people in the twentieth century came to enjoy the same freedoms that their ancestors enjoyed before the advent of Christianity.
Blasphemy The term blasphemer was applied to anyone who disagreed with the current line taken by the Church hierarchy. Blasphemers were liable to a range of punishments that tended to stop them repeating their offence. For trivial cases they had their lips cut off, or were burned through the tongue, or had their tongue cut out, or torn out.
For more serious cases they could also be sentenced to a quick death execution or a slow one imprisonment on a diet of bread and water.
St Thomas Aquinas regarded blasphemers as heretics, and heretics as blasphemers. For him heresy and blasphemy amounted to the same thing. Like a long line of influential theologians before him, stretching back to St Augustine, he advocated the death penalty for offenders 1and this was the prevailing view of Protestant as well as Roman Catholic scholars.
The consensus was that there was no choice in the matter because God had been explicit: And he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death, and all the congregation shall certainly stone him: Many Christians advocated death for blasphemers by stoning, in accordance with Leviticus, but the law never adopted this method of execution, despite its being advocated by bishops and judges.In the same year as Aikenhead was hanged, the Government passed An Act Against Atheism and Blasphemy for the Massachusetts Bay Colony, under King William III.
Punishments included sitting in the pillory, whipping and having the tongue bored through with a red hot iron, and sitting on the gallows with a rope around the neck, as well as up to six months in gaol. Free Essay on “Slow and Steady Wins the Race” – The modern life is a life of rush and hurry, stress and strain.
The world has grown so materialistic that everybody wants to make a quick buck by hook or by crook, even by throwing all norms of truth, sincerity, love, kinship, friendship, etc. to [ ]. One evening over dinner, I began to joke, as I often had before, about writing an essay called “Men Explain Things to Me.” Every writer has a stable of ideas that never make it to the racetrack, and I’d been trotting this pony out recreationally every once in a while.
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Sep 11, · Campus Watch demands academic integrity in North American Middle East studies (MES) programs. It reviews and critiques MES bias with the aim of improving education – keeping watch on scores of professors at hundreds of universities.
The literature of an age, and its social set up keeping and reacting one over the other. Literature influences the society; society is reflected in Literature and in this way, in all languages and at all times there has been a close interaction between the two.
Literature of any .