Types of Cloning a. When scientists wish to replicate a specific gene to facilitate more thorough study, molecular cloning is implemented in order to generate multiple copies of the DNA fragment of interest. In this process, the specific DNA fragment is transferred from one organism into a self-replicating genetic element, e.
This technical breakthrough follows similar research last year, which created cloned embryos from infant and fetal cells. Here is what every Christian should know about human cloning: Cloning is a form of reproduction in which offspring result not from the chance union of egg and sperm sexual reproduction but from the deliberate replication of the genetic makeup of another single individual asexual reproduction.
Human cloning, therefore, is the asexual production of a new human organism that is, at all stages of development, genetically virtually identical to a currently existing or previously existing human being.
How does therapeutic cloning differ from reproductive cloning? The use of the term 'therapeutic' and 'reproductive in reference to cloning is misleading. All cloning produces a human embryo and is therefore reproductive in nature.
The more accurate phrasing is 'cloning-to-produce-children' and 'cloning-for-research' to make a distinction between cloning that results in the creation of an embryo for subsequent destruction and one that is created in order to continue the normal process of human development.
What is the process of human cloning? Cloning is achieved by a technique referred to as somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT. The process involves introducing the nuclear material of a human somatic cell donor into an oocyte egg cell whose own nucleus has been removed or inactivated, and then stimulating this new entity to begin dividing and growing, yielding a cloned human embryo.
Does cloning produce an exact genetic replica of the donor? All human cells, including eggs and sperm, contain small, energy-producing organelles called mitochondria.
Mitochondria contain a small piece of DNA that specifies the genetic instructions for making several essential mitochondrial proteins.
Just as in sexual reproduction, the embryo produced by cloning contains genetic material from two different individuals.
How do the harvested cells from a cloned embryo differ from those produced by sexual reproduction or in-vitro fertilization? In addition to the epigenetic defects, cells derived from cloning that are injected back into the donor are rejected because of epigenetic mis-expression, genetic differences due to mitochondrial DNA, and the incompatibility of cells too immature in development to interact with adult tissue environments.
This is the major stumbling block for using material from cloned embryos for the treatment of diseases. What are the ethical problems concerning human cloning?
The primary moral objection to cloning-for-research is the same as for all embryo-destructive research—it creates human life solely for the purpose of destroying it; using a human embryo merely as a means to an end e.
The objection to cloning-to-produce children are similar in that it poses a threat to the life of the child, and potentially to the birth mother. Even if the process could be made safe, though, it has the potential to alter the "DNA ecosystem" in ways that are un-predictable and thus potentially injurious to human and non-human life.
For these reasons, Christians should continue to oppose all forms of human cloning as unethical and unnecessary. Even pro-choice advocates and others who hold liberal and progressive political views find sufficient ethical concerns for opposing the procedure.
The progressive International Center for Technology Assessmentfor example, highlights the concerns that cloning will lead to the exploitation of women: In recent testimony, one researcher stated that stem cells might be able to provide up to 1. This would require a minimum of million human eggs per year — assuming a very optimistically high success rate of 1 stem cell culture out of clonal embryos.
Where will researchers get these millions of eggs? From women in this country or abroad, and it is highly likely that many of these women will have to become repeat donors. Egg donation can have significant health impacts on women.
Of particular concern are 1 the super-ovulating drugs that women are given in order to provide the eggs for embryo cloning, 2 numerous hormone treatments given to ease egg extraction, and 3 the extraction process itself.
Risks to women from egg donation include a potential link to ovarian cysts and cancers, severe pelvic pain, rupture of the ovaries, bleeding into the abdominal cavity, acute respiratory distress, pulmonary embolism, and possible negative effects on future fertility.Until recently, discussions about human cloning were conducted within the realm of science fiction and fantasy.
However, with the successful cloning of the sheep "Dolly" in , it became evident that sooner or later, scientists might be able to clone human beings, too. The Governments Make a Move The governments went to work shortly after the cloning of Dolly.
They wanted to take control and make laws before anything drastic could ever happen. Several ethics committees were asked to decide whether scientists should be allowed to try to clone humans. Why Human Cloning Is Immoral An article about cloning and how Catholics should deal with this issue.
In bioethics, the ethics of cloning refers to a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities of cloning, especially human leslutinsduphoenix.com many of these views are religious in origin, some of the questions raised by cloning are faced by secular perspectives as well.
Perspectives on human cloning are theoretical, as human therapeutic and reproductive cloning are not. Conservative position: "Cloning, even so-called therapeutic or experimental cloning, creates a new life without a father, and reduces a mother to the provider of an almost emptied leslutinsduphoenix.comeless, it is a new human life and the determination to destroy it and limit its use to scientific research for therapeutic ends compound further the moral .
“Cloning” has been a volatile topic in the news of late. In England, for example, the House of Lords recently voted to 92 in favor of promoting experiments which will attempt to clone human beings – even though a conglomerate of religious leaders (Roman Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Muslims, and Sikhs) petitioned the politicians to pause .