This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Pressure ulcer in an otherwise sick patient is a matter of concern for the care givers as well as the medical personnel. A lot has been done to understand the disease process.
This often occurs when the patient or person stays in one position for a long time, such as after surgery or injury. The persistent pressure on that area of the skin reduces the blood supply and the affected tissue can die.
First, it turns up as a reddened skin, then a blister, an open sore and, finally, a crater. It is most commonly found in areas where the bones are prominent.
These are often the elbow, heels, hips, ankles, shoulders, back and the back of the head.
Causes of pressure ulcers are being bedridden or in a wheelchair, skin fragility, chronic medical conditions, limited body movements, malnourishment, mental disability, older age, and urinary or bowel incontinence. Other causes can be decreased weight, impaired nutritional intake, dehydration, and low serum albumin, which are considered risk factors Fergusson.
There are four stages of severity. In Stage I, the skin becomes red and the pressure ulcer begins. In Stage II, the blister becomes an open sore. In Stage III, the skin breaks down and looks like a crate. The tissue under the skin becomes damaged. And in Stage IV, the damage becomes deep and extensive.
The muscle, bone, tendons or joints are often affected Berman, Ferguson. Statistics say that more than a million persons develop pressure ulcers every year Fergusson et al. Hospital cases account for 2. Pressure ulcers seriously reduce the patient's quality of life.
Medical conditions, infections and even death are associated with pressure ulcers.
Records show that about 60, persons die of complications from pressure ulcers. Court suits have been filed in connection with the prevalence by the patient, his or her family, government agencies or the media. Courts have found many facilities liable for poor pressure ulcer management. Studies found that those who were granted monetary recovery caused by poor nutrition were five times more than that caused by pressure ulcer management alone Fergusson.
Complications of pressure ulcers include sepsis, localized infection, cellulites and osteomyelitis Allman Sepsis is the most serious. A pressure ulcer most often accounts for aerobic or anaerobic bacteremia.Pressure Ulcer Pressure Ulcer Prevention In US acute care facilities alone, an estimated million pressure ulcers are treated each year3 The average cost per day per patient to treat a pressure ulcer is $, while the average cost to prevent a pressure ulcer is only 47 cents4 In , the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services stopped reimbursing hospitals for nosocomial pressure.
The Impact Of Pressure Ulcers Nursing Essay. CHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION. The impact of pressure ulcers on the quality of life of the patient cannot be overemphasised, as it can be devastating (Spilsbury et al. ; MEP Ltd, ; NHS for Scotland, ). The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) serves as the authoritative voice for improved patient outcomes in pressure injury prevention and treatment .
Pressure Ulcers in ICU - Introduction According to Shahin, Dassen and Halfrens () “patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) have a 50% higher chance of developing a pressure ulcer as compared to patients on any other unit in a facility” (para 1).
Pressure ulcers per federal guidelines comes with a F-Tag according to federal regulations for pressure ulcers entails that residents who become residents and enter a long -term care facility must not develop a pressure ulcer unless it is unavoidable.
The study of interest for this statistical paper is within Applied Nursing Research. The Validity of the Braden and Waterlow subscales in predicting pressure ulcer risk in hospitalized patients.