The benefits in animal testing outweighs its cons

Advantages and Disadvantages of Animal Testing By Mara Shannon; Updated March 13, Each year, reports Santa Clara University, approximately 20 million animals are used in medical experiments or to test products, many of them dying in the process.

The benefits in animal testing outweighs its cons

Medicine That the human body is a machine, albeit an incredibly complex one, is the striking claim made by Laurie Pycroft, the advocate of animal experimentation in the Argument in the current issue of New Internationalist.

Of course neither animals nor people are simply machines. Thinking that they are reveals a fundamental failure to appreciate their other qualities, such as their capacity for emotion, or ability to engage in genuine social relationships.

More disturbingly, such a claim reveals a degree of moral blindness. Machines have no moral standing. In particular, unlike machines, both laboratory animals and people have the ability to suffer when afflicted by diseases, or when subjected to laboratory environments or procedures.

A parallel case could be made for experimenting on people to help a greater number of others. However, most people consider such practices morally abhorrent.

Yet animal researchers and their advocates use a similar argument to justify invasive experiments on animals. In order for this argument to hold, the moral standing of animals must be significantly less than that of people.

When animals are seriously harmed or killed for relatively trivial human benefit, such as cosmetics testing or the satisfaction of scientific curiosity, the moral standing of animals must be thought extremely small.

In Judith Benz-Schwarzburg and I reviewed in detail the scientific evidence for the existence of cognitive and related abilities in animals1.

There is ample scientific evidence from this study and others demonstrating that many animals — including virtually all laboratory animals - have sufficient psychological characteristics to justify their inclusion within the community of moral consideration.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Animal Testing | Sciencing

This implies that many of the ways we use such animals, including subjecting them to involuntary confinement and participation in potentially harmful biomedical research, are wrong. Additionally, the usefulness of invasive animal experiments is controversial. Some scientists claim these are essential for combating major human diseases or detecting human toxins.

Others claim the contrary, pointing to the thousands of patients harmed by pharmaceuticals developed using animal tests. Similarly, some claim that all experiments are conducted humanely, to high scientific standards.

Yet, a wealth of studies have recently revealed that laboratory animals suffer significant stress, which may also distort experimental results. Where, then, does the truth lie? How useful are such experiments in advancing human healthcare?

Introduction

How much do animals suffer as a result? Systematic reviews examine large numbers of animal experiments selected randomly to eliminate bias.

In only two of 20 reviews located did the authors conclude that animal models were either significantly useful in contributing to the development of human clinical interventions, or substantially consistent with clinical outcomes.

Furthermore, one of these conclusions was contentious. Seven additional reviews also failed to demonstrate reliable predictivity of human toxicities such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity, and no reviews demonstrated contrary results.

Animals in research: do the costs outweigh the benefits?

Results in animal models were frequently equivocal or inconsistent with human outcomes. When considering overall costs and benefits one cannot reasonably conclude that the benefits which accrue to human patients or to those motivated by scientific curiosity exceed the costs incurred by animals subjected to scientific procedures.

On the contrary, the evidence indicates that actual human benefit is rarely — if ever — sufficient to justify such costs. According due respect to animal interests does not require the termination of all animal research, however.

The benefits in animal testing outweighs its cons

Such research ranges from field studies of wild populations, through non-invasive behavioural or psychological studies of sanctuary or laboratory populations, to mildly harmful invasive experimentation, more harmful experimentation, and, finally, protocols resulting in major harm or death.Animal rights advocates argue that such testing is unnecessary and cruel, while proponents of animal testing believe that the benefits to humans outweigh the moral issues.

Alternatives One argument against animal testing is that there are often more acceptable alternatives. Disclosure statement. Andrew Knight is an Associate Professor for Welfare and Ethics at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, St Kitts, in the Caribbean.

Animal Testing Pros and Cons |List of 8 Facts to Consider Animal testing is a process in which small animals like rats, mice, rabbits, pigs, dogs etc. are used for experimentation. This is a regular practice in drug development and other areas of scientific research. Cons of Animal Testing. Animal Welfare Act Is Bypassed The Animal Welfare Act, or AWA, was signed in in order to protect certain animals from cruel treatment.

The animals that are chosen for testing are not covered in this act. This is because they carefully choose animals whose rights do not fall under the jurisdiction of the AWA. 'The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments is a must read for those who want to discover the truth about the use of animal models in medical research.

Using cold, hard facts not emotion Knight reveals the true cost not only to animals, but to human patients reliant on the results of animal research. Nonhuman animal (“animal”) experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits.

Argument Essay - Animal Testing is necessary | Essay Example