Sigerist Stemmatics or stemmatology is a rigorous approach to textual criticism.
They have gone by many names, but today they are generally known as Phonics and Whole Language approaches. These approaches to reading instruction reflect very different underlying philosophies and stress very different skills. The philosophy underlying the Whole Language approach is that reading is a natural process, much like learning to speak, and that children exposed to a great deal of authentic, connected text will naturally become literate without much in the way of explicit instruction in the rules and conventions of printed text.
The philosophy underlying the Phonics approach is quite different -- Phonics advocates argue that in order to learn to read, most children require a great deal of explicit instruction in the rules of printed text.
Whole Language and Phonics Approaches A young child in a Whole Language classroom is provided with simple, predictable and repetitive text -- frequently the text is already familiar to the child, making it that much easier to understand.
Emphasis in a Whole Language classroom is not placed on reading precision and accuracy, but on comprehension and appreciation -- children are not expected to read the text verbatim, they are allowed to insert and substitute words as long as the story still makes sense, and as long as the child is understanding the gist of the story.
The primary goal of the Whole Language teacher is to foster a love for the act of reading authentic and connected text, and to keep the process of reading instruction uncontrived.
In a Phonics classroom, by contrast, a great emphasis is placed on reading precision, and children are encouraged to read the words exactly as they appear on the page. Children are explicitly taught "rules" about the way words are written and spelled, and they are taught spelling-sound relationships.
After a teacher provides an explicit lesson in a particular Phonics rule e. The goal of the Phonics teacher, then, is to instill children with the Phonics rules and the common spelling-sound relationships, and to teach children to apply this knowledge in The eclectic approach each word they encounter, making the assumption that comprehension and appreciation will be a natural consequence of accuracy.
Some people have characterized the fundamental difference between these two philosophies The eclectic approach being a debate between whether reading is "top-down" or "bottom-up. The reader forms hypotheses and makes predictions, and only samples the text occasionally to confirm those predictions.
By contrast, the Phonics approach could be described as "bottom-up" -- Phonics advocates argue that if a person is able to correctly decode text, meaning and understanding will follow. The text contains the message, and through the act of decoding the text, the reader discovers what that message is.
The Great Debate a. The Reading Wars Educators have debated over which is the best approach to teach children to read for many years. The ancient Greeks began reading instruction by teaching the letters and the letter-sound relationships, and children did not attempt to decode any real words until they had mastered these basics.
In the middle of the 19th century, the great education reformer Horace Mann criticized the Phonics-like approach to reading instruction that was prevalent at the time, describing letters of the alphabet as "bloodless, ghostly apparitions.
Late in the 19th century and early in the 20th century, the pendulum swung back towards "skills and drills" based instruction, such as the McGuffy readers and the Beacon readers. Thus, the "look-say" approach to reading instruction became the predominant approach to reading instruction. The pendulum once again swung back towards Phonics, but in addition, this book added very political overtones to what was already becoming a very heated debate.
In the s, educators rebelled against the contrived drills and worksheets that were common in the Phonics curricula; the pendulum swung back towards Whole Language and more "authentic" reading lessons, and the volatile nature of what has come to be known as "the Great Debate" became even more politically charged.
With social and political conservatives having embraced Phonics as a traditionalist, back-to-basics approach to reading instruction, liberals embraced Whole Language, describing the Whole Language approach as more "democratic" and even using terms like "elitist" and "racist" to describe the Phonics philosophy.
Arguably, the Great Debate, or what some have more appropriately dubbed the "reading wars," has been one of the most destructive forces in reading education.
The battles have grown from ideological differences to personal, politically charged attacks on character. Teachers, and more importantly children, have been caught in the crossfire. Recently the National Academy of Sciences released an analysis of research in reading instruction called Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children.
In the preface to this book, the committee that authored it expressed their hopes that the research-based information provided in their report would "mark the end of the reading wars.
It was clearly their intention to simply promote the best information available about reading and reading instruction, and to ignore which "party" had promoted it in the past.
Still, reviews of the report summarized the content with overly simplistic statements such as "researchers call for a balanced approach to end the reading wars.
Educators nationwide are promoting a "balanced" approach to reading instruction in an effort to bring an end to the reading wars. However, while an end to the reading wars could not possibly be more desirable, it is important to remember that a compromise between these two approaches to reading instruction will not necessarily result in the single, best approach.
If either Phonics or Whole Language was even close to being the panacea of reading education, then there would not be a Great Debate.
The fact is, there is not much evidence that either the Whole Language approach or the Phonics approach is particularly effective. As Marilyn Adams has said, "We have known for 30 years that Phonics did a better job at teaching reading than Whole Word -- and now Whole Language -- instruction.
But, you know, it never was that much better. While the pendulum of reading instruction has swung back and forth several times, reading performance for children has remained quite stable, and unfortunately, quite poor.
Around the world, not just in the U. Problems with a Balanced Approach One possible contributing factor in the stability of the NAEP scores despite teachers moving to a more "balanced approach" to reading instruction stems from the fact that most people do not agree what the term "balanced approach" means.
A balanced approach could be generically described as "mixing some Phonics with Whole Language," but how this is accomplished in any particular classroom is unclear. The eclectic approach, as some have come to call it, sometimes involves teaching Phonics first, and then "graduating" to Whole Language approaches.
Alternatively, the Phonics instruction may be explicit, but children might be given more opportunities to read connected, authentic literature. Or, lessons prescribed by Phonics and Whole Language may be intermixed in the hopes that different children will benefit from different "styles" of teaching.Tenants.
© LBA Realty. All Rights Reserved. License Number Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
However, this is often without conventions or rules dictating how or which. Eclectic approach is a method of language education that combines various approaches and methodologies to teach language depending on the aims of the lesson and the abilities of the learners. Different teaching methods are borrowed and adapted to suit the requirement of the learners.
What Is Eclectic Therapy? As its name indicates, eclectic therapy is a therapeutic approach that incorporates a variety of therapeutic principles and philosophies in order to create the ideal treatment program to meet the specific needs of the patient or client.
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